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Following a letter from the Agent of the new Provisional Government to President Truman that the state of Israel has been proclaimed as an independent republic within frontiers approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations, Members of the Arab League – Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Transjordan, the Holy War Army and the Arab Liberation Army, marched their forces into what had the previous day ceased to be the British Mandate for Palestine.
The League of Arab States sent a cablegram to the Secretary-General of the United Nations saying, "On the occasion of the intervention of Arab States in Palestine to restore law and order and to prevent disturbances prevailing in Palestine from spreading into their territories and to check further bloodshed".
Attack quickly turned into a regional war, in which Israel defeated the combined forces of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and their supporters.
It captured the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.
The leaders of 25 Muslim states attended and the conference called for Israel to give up territory conquered in 1967.
The conference also set up the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and pledged its support for the Palestinians.
During and after the war about 711,000 Palestinian Arabs became displaced and refugees.
Violent confrontation between the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) under the command of David Ben-Gurion, and the paramilitary Jewish group Irgun known as The Altalena Affair resulted in the dismantlement of the Irgun, Lehi, and all Israeli paramilitary organizations operating outside the IDF.
Infiltration by Palestinian fedayeen began from Egypt, resulting in many minor skirmishes, raids and counter-raids, causing hundreds of casualties on both sides, including many civilians.
The Israeli army killed a monthly average of 33 people crossing the armistice lines, including 78 in March and 57 in April. Israel invaded Egypt's Sinai Peninsula with covert assent from France and Britain.
The European nations had economic and trading interests in the Suez Canal, while Israel wanted to reopen the canal for Israeli shipping and end Egyptian-supported fedayeen incursions and attacks.